Voting is a principal way through which the government is elected democratically. This means people tend to select people they want to run the office, depending on the majority. According to Brennan (2011) voting is a civil duty for every citizen, but people disagree and thus confirming that not every individual votes. Voting faces both abstention and indulgence depending on the situations, interest or priority of the voter. To keep the moral of democracy it is very important to make ‘intelligent voting’ but at the same time very difficult to attain.
Voters cannot be forced to vote so voting should be made easy to attract voters. 2. Methodology The voting methodology of voting in U. S. is ‘First-Past-the-Post’. That is voting and winning on the basis of maximum votes at the account. It is the best way to select a democratic government depending on the majority win. Whether all citizen vote or not, but those who do, whom they give the most votes wins. 2. 1. Eligibility In 1972 the voter age was changed from twenty one to eighteen. The voters are not restricted to age, gender, color, class or race, if they are eighteen or above they are free to vote.
A revolution was made according to voting Right Act 1965, the southern black people were granted right to vote. The felony convictions are however not allowed to vote according to the laws, they consist 5. 3 million Americans. The laws still do not define clearly whether people with mental illness could vote or not. 2. 2. Voter Registration The voter’s registration is an individual responsibility in U. S. instead of governments which tend to reduce voters. The way to make voters list and provide a voter ID at home is far easier way to get voters vote. But the otherwise options make it difficult to vote.
The Registration Act 1993 is although trying to improve the system and have introduced motor-voter law that allows the voters to register online. Vehicles also roam around the town registering voters but this facility is only in some cities. 2. 3. Early Voting When the voter follow the entire process and vote on time at the day the voting conducted is early voting. It is the right way to vote. 2. 4. Absentee Voting Voters that are registered and do not vote on the day of voting, their votes are posted to them and then are asked to vote and why they did not voting.
The votes are thus termed as Absentee Votes. 2. 5. Mail Ballots For those who are away from the country or due to any reason cannot access to the polling station, have the facility to vote through email. 2. 6. Voting Equipment Voting requires some equipment that is used to conduct voting. Specially to make sure the counting of the votes is free of error machines like ‘optical scan voting machines’ and ‘DRE voting machines’ are used. Voting equipments also include ballot boxes, stationary, papers etc making voting a costly process. . Voting Behavior The voting behavior in U. S. had ups and downs over the year, the recent Brack Obama win election comparatively had a better result, but otherwise the Americans seem to have very less interest in politics and voting.
This is not a healthy sign of democracy. According the history of voting from 1870 to 1920 there was a gradual increase in the voting and from there to 1940 the rate of voting declined. It remained less till now but still the condition is not much favorable. (Valelly, 2009) 3. 1. Analysis The U. S. oting system lack a lot of basis, most importantly in comforting the voters, although amendments are being but still the situation is not very suitable for voting. When people show no interest that things should change and attention should be drawn. Elections should be for all members of the society. The barriers to voting should be reduced and voting should be done on work days. It is very important to educate the voters and more and more possible polling stations should be made. People may not vote because of the considerable distance.
Any campaigns regarding any parties should be peaceful and nonviolence should be the motive of all candidates otherwise they should be disqualified. It is also required to have better vote counting machinery to avoid any possible error. 3. 2. factors effecting voting behavior Analyzing the voting behavior of U. S. it is important to consider factors involved in the process Social class Geography It is important that all around the country votes are taken. The areas far away should also be covered. The voting behavior in the U. S. is quite contradicted to this, as people have to travel from far places to vote.
Polling stations are less and far away. It is easier for those who live near by the stations to vote then those who are away resulting them not to vote many times. Age It is seen that senior citizens are more likely to vote then the students, although they have polling stations at their schools and colleges. This may be because of lack of interest. Some citizens vote as an obligation then choice. Such voters are beneficial voters as they are more likely to vote for the better candidates on contrast people may vote on the basis of personal appearance of the candidate which is not a healthy voting style.
The age limit of citizens that vote responsibly is more than those who vote for personal favorite. Candidate’s behaviors Every candidate in America tries to get out votes according to Bianco (2001). For the purpose different campaign are run and speeches are made termed as “cheap talk’ by most of the Americans. But do these campaigns and promises made affect the voter’s behavior? The answer is yes they do effect. Because they may provide the voters some information they were interested in or were not expecting what their favorite candidate said in one of his public appearance Media
Media always play a very important role in politics. Although American media do not seem interested in election much, presenting more negative than positive but this also effects. It tends the voter not to vote which is not a positive play. Maybe possible some kind of ruling agency is trying to do media do it for them, it is a possibility as the role of media in politics is very important. If much awareness is provided about elections and voting benefits the voting rate in America is sure to rate much higher. Cost and Benefit of voting To let people vote it is very necessary to make sure the cost they pay for it is very less.
On general basis people who vote and vote with will and obligation sense do not counter on cost of benefits of voting (Hudson, 2006). For the law making bodies however it is a point to pounder because it really affects voting, as not only voting cost some amount of money but also time and effort. It may be that if the voted individual wins then the voter would consider his vote beneficial otherwise, he would consider it waste of time more likely not the vote the next year. What each voter thinks could be different but these are possibilities that should be avoided by making voting an easy process, less time consuming and effortless. . 3. Attempts to increase turnout The turnout of overall election is home worked by the qualified members of the candidates teams and are implemented intelligently as the whole election thing depends on the wanted result that is termed as turnout. The candidates every step is watched by the public.
From what they say to what they eat and how they eat. There are two types of voters in general, one are those who vote according to the best man to run the government and others who judge the candidates social and marital life, there past etc. oth of them are important to the candidates, thus they try to attract but either by lying or speaking the truth. By showing their interest in politics and on the other hand attending parties and showing the charm of their personalities. In the recent presidential election Obama made many mobilization campaigns to increase his turnout and was successful. 3. 4. Decline in civil interest for voting It may be the life style the Americans live, being unhappy with the politics made in American or lack of interest in social affairs the civil interest in voting seems to decrease over time.
People do not care who their president would be they avoid voting for no reason and seen ok with it. the most important factor of lack of interest is lake of knowledge. Awareness is what America needs to get back to vote. 3. 5. Role of activist There are many activist parties in America who are responsible to increase or decrease the voting made. The activism can be both violent and nonviolent in nature. In the 1990 violent behaviors during elections were witnessed in some of the American cities like Mexico. But the violence was never supported and the nonviolent activism played its role in the elections.
The supportive to against behavior of these parties matter. 4. Comparisons There are many negatives and positives of voting behaviors that occur during the election and dram its impact on the overall turnout of the elections. 4. 1 Rational voting vs. Irrational Mostly the voting made in America is rational in nature as the voting and abstention made is due to the personal characteristics, like race, color, class, likes or dislikes etc, only a few voters work to get knowledge about the candidate and then vote irrationally for the betterment of democracy. 4. 2 Outsider strategies vs. Insider’s
During the elections strategies are made both inside and outside. The insider strategies are conventional whereas outsider strategies are unconventional. To draw a line between the two is very difficult according to Smith (2010). The elements involved in it are violent protest, nonviolent activism, interest groups (these are groups for whom voting is made easy as they are the strong voters), political parties, voting and elections and public office holding. They derive the entire voting process. The violent protest is the most unconventional of all and is supported by non of the parties. . 3 Basic approach vs. Applied Basic approach is approach towards the voting without any influence on the contrary is applied approach that is the actual result formulated. Assumptions are made about the basic approach that is likely to be formed and the applied is the outcome of what it gets out of it. 5. Conclusions The lack of interest in politics mostly by youngsters is not what should be avoided. The life cycle that they follow only encircle ‘self’ for most of the Americans. Indulging in social life is very important, it may be disagreed but on the whole it’s a fact to think on.
Media should portray the good politics as well, over the year only bad is being highlighted, which even let down the little interest one may have. A country cannot run without the office and to get the right person on the office is a prior duty of every citizen of the democratic state. One cannot get what they want from the government without electing the right people. Awareness is the prime factor to it, Intelligent voting from proper knowledge about the candidates is the requirement of a well elected democratic government. . Work cited Brennan, J. , The Ethics of Voting. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2011. Bianco, T. W. , American Politics: Strategy and Choice. U. S: Norton, 2001. Hudson, E. W. , American Democracy in Peril. U. S. : CQ press, 2006 Valelly, M. R. , Princeton Readings in American Politics. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2009. Smith, A. R. , Importing democracy: ideas from around the world to reform and revitalize American politics and government. U. S. : Preager, 2010.