Article Reviews

Chapter 21 Essay

Posted on

Chapter 21 Study Guide Answer Key 4. How did the rapid industrialization of warfare impact the war? It generated an array of novel weapons, including submarines, tanks, airplanes, poison gas, machine guns, and barbed wire. This new military technology contributed to the staggering casualties of the war, including some 10 million deaths; perhaps twice the number wounded, crippled, or disfigured; and countless women for whom their would be no husbands or children 5. With whom did the Ottoman Empire ally itself in WWI? Germany. (p. 981) 6. When and why did the United States join the war?

The United States, after initially seeking to avoid involvement in European quarrels, joined the war in 1917 when German submarines threatened American shipping. (p. 981) 7. In what ways did WWI mark new departures for countries around the globe in the history of the 20th century? The authority of governments expanded greatly. In the European center of the conflict, unprecedented casualties, particularly among the elite and well-educated groups, and the physical destruction, especially in France, led to a widespread disillusionment among intellectuals with their own civilization.

From the collapse of the German, Russian, and Austrian empires emerged a new map of Central Europe with an independent Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and other nations. Such new states were based on the principle of “national self-determination. ” In Russia, the strains of war triggered a vast revolutionary upheaval that brought the radical Bolsheviks to power in 1917 and took Russia out of the war. Thus was launched world communism.

The Treaty of Versailles, which formally ended the war in 1919, proved in retrospect to have established conditions that generated a second world war only twenty years later. Ottoman authorities massacred or deported an estimated one million Armenians, and established a precedent on which the Nazis later built. The war also brought a final end to a declining Ottoman Empire, creating the modern map of the Middle East, with the new states of Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Jordan, and Palestine.

Conflicting promises to both Arabs and Jews regarding Palestine set the stage for an enduring struggle over that ancient and holy land. Millions of Asian and African men had watched Europeans butcher one another without mercy, had gained new military skills and political awareness, and returned home with less respect for their rulers and with expectations for better treatment as a reward for their service. In East Asia, Japan emerged strengthened from the war, with European support for its claim to take over German territory and privileges in China.

That news enraged Chinese nationalists and among a few sparked an interest in Soviet-style communism, for only the new communist rulers of Russia seemed willing to end the imperialist penetration of China. Finally, WWI brought the United States to center stage as a global power. (pp. 982-984) 8. What were the terms of the Treaty of Versailles? Germany lost its colonial empire and 15% of its European territory, was required to pay heavy reparations to the winners, had its military forces severely restricted, and had to accept sole responsibility for the outbreak of the war. (p. 983) 9.

What right did women increasingly gain? The right to vote. (p. 985) 10. What happened on the day that the American Stock Market initially crashed? On October 24, 1929, eleven Wall Street financiers committed suicide, some by jumping out of skyscrapers. Banks closed, and many people lost their life’s savings. Investments dried up, world trade dropped by 62% within a few years, and businesses contracted when they were unable to sell their products. For ordinary people, the worst feature was the loss of work. (p. 985) 11. Explain the continuing spread of the Great Depression from America to Europe.

The U. S. had a booming economy during the 1920s. It was physically untouched by the war and wartime demand had greatly stimulated agricultural and industrial capacity. By the end of the 1920s, its farms and factories were producing more goods than could be sold because a highly unequal distribution of income meant that many people could not afford to buy the products that American factories were churning out. Nor were major European countries able to purchase those goods. Germany and Austria had to make huge reparation payments and were able to do so only with extensive U. S. loans.

Britain and France, which were much indebted to the U. S. , depended on those reparations to repay their loans. Furthermore, Europeans generally had recovered enough to begin producing some of their own goods, and their expanding production further reduced the demand for American products. Meanwhile, a speculative stock market frenzy had driven up stock prices to an unsustainable level. When that bubble burst in late 1929, this intricately connected and fragile economic network across the Atlantic collapsed. (p. 986) 12. What rendered other societies vulnerable to changes in the world market?

As much as Europe’s worldwide empires had globalized the war, so too its economic linkages globalized the Great Depression. Countries or colonies tied to exporting one or two products were especially hard-hit. Depending on a single crop or product rendered these societies vulnerable. 13. Why did the Soviet Union escape the Great Depression? The Soviet Union, a communist state whose more equal distribution of income and state-controlled economy had generated impressive growth with no unemployment in the 1930s, even as the capitalist world was reeling. (p. 987) 14.

In what ways did fascism challenge the ideas and practices of European liberalism and democracy? At the level of ideas, fascism was intensely nationalistic, seeking to revitalize and purify the nation and to mobilize its people for some grand task. Its spokesmen condoned violence against enemies, exalted action rather than thought and reflection, and looked to a charismatic leader for direction. Fascists also bitterly condemned individualism, liberalism, feminism, parliamentary democracy, and communism, all of which, they argued, divided and weakened the nation. pp. 988-989) 15. Who was Benito Mussolini and how did he rise to power? He was a charismatic orator and a former journalist with a socialist background. With the help of a private army of disillusioned veterans and jobless men known as the Black Shirts, Mussolini swept to power in 1922, promising an alternative to both communism and ineffective democratic rule. Considerable violence accompanied Mussolini’s rise to power as bands of Black Shirts destroyed the offices of socialist newspapers, attacked striking workers, and forced socialists to drink castor oil.

Fearful of communism, big business threw its support to Mussolini, who promised order in the streets, an end to bickering party-based politics, and the maintenance of the traditional social order. (p. 989) 16. How was the German expression of Nazism like that of its Italian counterpart? Both fascism and Nazism espoused an extreme nationalism, openly advocated the use of violence as a political tool, generated a single-party dictatorship, were led by charismatic figures, despised parliamentary democracy, hated communism, and viewed war as a positive and ennobling experience. p. 990) 17. What was the basis of popular support for the Nazis? German liberal or democratic political leaders during the 1920s faced the active or silent animosity of much of the German population. Vigilante groups of veterans assassinated hundreds of liberal politicians, journalists, and supporters of the Weimar regime, and they received only mild punishments from conservative judges, who also detested the republic.

These small groups of discontented veterans gradually drew support from the middle classes as well as from conservative landowners because of the ruinous inflation of 1923 and then the Great Depression. The German economy largely ground to a halt. Everyone demanded decisive governmental action. Many industrial workers turned to socialists and communists for answers; others looked to fascism. Large numbers of middle-class people deserted moderate political parties in favor of conservative and radical right-wing movements. (p. 991) 18. What was Hitler’s leadership message to the Germans?

It was a message of intense German nationalism cast in terms of racial superiority, bitter hatred for Jews as an alien presence, passionate opposition to communism, a determination to rescue Germany from the humiliating requirements of the Treaty of Versailles, and a willingness to decisively tackle the country’s economic problems. (p. 991) 19. What did Hitler do once he was in power? Hitler quickly suppressed all other political parties, abolished labor unions, arrested thousands of opponents, controlled the press and radio, and in general assumed police power over society far more thoroughly than Italian fascists were able to achieve. p. 991) 20. How did Hitler’s policies bring Germany successfully out of the Depression? The government invested heavily in projects such as superhighways, bridges, canals, and public buildings, and, after 1935, in rebuilding and rearming the country’s diminished military forces. These policies drove down the number of unemployed Germans from 6. 2 million in 1932 to fewer than 5000,000 in 1937. Hitler seemed to have the secret for recovery: economic planning, controlled wages and prices, government investment, and enforced peace between capital and labor. (pp. 91-992) 21. How did Japan’s experience during the 1920s and 1930s resemble that of Germany, and how did it differ? Their experiences were similar in that both countries were newcomers to great-power status; had limited experience with democratic politics; moved toward authoritarian government and a denial of democracy at home; launched aggressive programs of territorial expansion; and enacted policies that included state-financed credit and large-scale spending on armaments and public works projects to bring their respective countries out of the Depression very quickly.

Their experiences differed in that Japan remained, at least internally, a less repressive and more pluralistic society than Germany; no right-wing party was able to seize power in Japan; Japan produced no charismatic leader on the order of Mussolini or Hitler; and Japanese conceptions of their racial purity and uniqueness were directed largely against foreigners rather than an internal minority. (pp. 993-996) 22. Explain why Japan withdrew from the League of Nations; and, eventually, what was the consequence of Japan’s actions?

In the late 1920s and 1930s, Japanese imperial ambitions mounted as the military became more prominent and powerful in Japan’s political life. An initial problem was the rise of Chinese nationalism, which seemed to threaten Japan’s sphere of influence in Manchuria, which had been acquired after the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. Acting independently of civilian authorities in Tokyo, units of the Japanese military seized control of Manchuria in 1931 and established a puppet state called Manchukuo.

This action infuriated Western powers, prompting Japan to withdraw from the League of Nations, to break politically with its Western allies, and in 1936 to align more closely with Germany and Italy. By that time, relations with an increasingly nationalist China had deteriorated further, leading to a full-scale attack on heartland China in 1937 and escalating a bitter conflict that would last another eight years. WWI in Asia had begun. (pp. 996-997) 23. What were Japan’s political and economic relationships with the United States?

Anti-immigration policies in the United States convinced some Japanese that European racism prevented the West from acknowledging Japan as an equal power. Furthermore, Japan was quite dependent on foreign and especially American sources of strategic goods. By the late 1930s, some 73% of Japan’s scrap iron, 60% of its imported machine tools, 80% of its oil, and about half of its copper came from the U. S. , which was becoming increasingly hostile to Japanese ambitions in Asia. 24. In 1940-1941, how did Japan respond to Western imperial powers to acquire necessary resources?

Japan extended its military operations to the French, British, Dutch, and American colonies of Indochina (Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia today), Malaya (Malaysia today), Burma (Myanmar today), Indonesia, and the Philippines in an effort to acquire those resources that would free it from dependence on the West. In carving out this Pacific empire, the Japanese presented themselves as liberators and modernizers, creating an “Asia for Asians” and freeing their continent form European dominance. (p. 997) 25. As a consequence of the attack on Pearl Harbor, what did it mean for both Japan and the U. S.?

The United States entered the war in the Pacific, beginning a long and bloody struggle that ended only with the use of atomic bombs against Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. The Pearl Harbor action also joined the Asian theater of the war and the ongoing conflict in Europe into a single global struggle that pitted Germany, Italy, and Japan against the U. S. , Britain, and the Soviet Union. (p. 999) 26. Although Germany was central to both world wars, how was the second one different from the first? WWII was not welcomed with the kind of mass enthusiasm that had accompanied the opening of WWI.

The bitter experience of the Great War suggested to most people that only suffering lay ahead. The conduct of the two wars differed. The first war had quickly bogged down in trench warfare that emphasized defense, whereas in the second war the German tactic of blitzkrieg (lightning war) coordinated the rapid movement of infantry, tanks, and airpower over very large areas. (pp. 999-1000) 27. How did WWII differ from WWI? WWII was more destructive than WWI, with some 60 million deaths—six times the deaths in WWI. More than half the casualties of WWII were civilians, blurring the traditional line between civilian and military targets.

A further dimension of total war lay in governments’ efforts to mobilize their economies, their people, and their propaganda machines even more extensively that in WWI. On a larger scale than WWI, WWII rearranged the architecture of world politics. Within a few years, a weakened Europe was impoverished, its industrial infrastructure was shattered, many of its great cities wee in ruins, and millions of its people were homeless or displaced. Additionally, Europe was divided with its western half operating under an American umbrella and eastern half subject to Soviet control.

Europe no longer dominated world affairs and the U. S. was the new superpower. The League of Nations was replaced with the United Nations as a forum for international opinion than as a means of solving the major conflicts of the postwar world. A growing internationalism lay in the creation of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund in 1945, whose purpose was to regulate the global economy, prevent another depression, and stimulate economic growth, especially in the poorer nations. (pp. 1001-1005) 28. What were the three factors that helped Europe recover from the devastation of war?

Europe’s industrial societies proved to be resilient. The major Western European countries took steps to integrate their recovering economies. The U. S. was in a position to take a leadership role in the West and served as a reservoir of military manpower, economic resources, and political leadership for the West as a whole. (p. 1005)29. In what ways did the Marshall Plan help to rebuild and reshape the shattered European economy after WWII? The Marshall Plan funneled some $12 billion into Europe, together with numerous advisers and technicians.

It was motivated by some combination of humanitarian concern, a desire to prevent a new depression by creating overseas customers for American industrial goods, and an interest in undermining the growing appeal of European communist parties. This economic recovery plan was successful beyond anyone’s expectations. Between 1948 and the early 1970s, Western European economies grew rapidly, generating a widespread prosperity and improving living standards; at the same time, Western Europe became both a major consumer for American goods and a major competitor in global markets.

It also required its European recipients to cooperate with one another. (pp. 1005-1006) 30. What was a consequence of the American occupation on Japan from 1945-1952? The democratic constitution imposed on Japan by American occupation authorities required that “land, sea, and air forces, as well as other war potential, will never be maintained. ” Two billion dollars in aid helped boost Japanese economy and the nation became an economic giant on the world stage. (pp. 1006-1007)Explain the significance of each of the following: Great War—It was the name originally given to the First World War. p. 977) Conscription—compulsory military service (the “draft”) (p. 981) New Deal—a series of reforms enacted by the President Franklin Roosevelt administration between 1933 and 1942 with the goal of ending the Great Depression (p. 987) John Maynard Keynes—a prominent British economist who argued that government actions and spending programs could moderated the recessions and depressions to which capitalist economies were prone. These measures were reflected in Roosevelt’s New Deal policies. (p. 87) Axis Powers—a 1940 military alliance among Germany, Italy, and Japan that was directed against the Soviet Union and international communism. They wanted to establish and maintain a new order of things. (p. 988) EEC—European Economic Community—also known as the Common Market—was an alliance formed by Italy, France, West Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg in 1957 and dedicated to developing common trade policies and reduced tariffs; it gradually developed into the European Union (p. 006) European Union—In 1994, the EEC was renamed the EU. In 2002, 12 of its members adopted a common currency, the euro. (pgs. 1006-1007) NATO—The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 1949, was a military and political alliance. It committed the United States and its nuclear arsenal to the defense of Europe against the Soviet Union, and it firmly anchored West Germany within the Western alliance.