1/29/13 Mr. jack per. 3 AP Euro DBQ ESSAY Various people viewed the character and condition of Greeks in the Ottoman Empire during the Greek movement for independence in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. During the eighteenth century, Greeks living in exile began to appeal to their fellow Greeks to free themselves from Ottoman rule. Greek nationalists urged Greeks living throughout the Balkans and Asia Minor to revolt against their Turkish Muslim rulers.
An uprising in March 1821 began a nine year war for independence several thousand European volunteers fought on the Greek side, while many more raised money and spread pro-Greek views in Europe. Intervention by Russian, French and English forces in 1827 and 1828 ultimately forced the Turks to grant Greek independence, which was formally established by a multipower treaty in 1830. Sneyd Davis, an English writer, wrote a poem to his friend and neighbor Dr. Thomas Taylor, in 1744. In it he writes about how Athens was after it was taken by the Turks. He says that it was deserted, it was noiseless, and it was empty.
Once a place filled with joy but now all that remains are Turkish soldiers and captains. In his poem, the words he used show his empathy and his hatred for the Turks. It shows how sad and angry he is that Athens has been taken. Mustapha III, the Turkish sultan, orders his governor in northern Greece to repress raids by Greeks, in 1765. He says that the robbers lead the district of Larissa to rebellion. He wants the people to arrest and imprison the robbers, take back the stolen goods, animals, and any ransom money, and lastly to cleanse the place of “evildoers. ” Mustapha III shows how angry he is by writing about these robbers.
He shows that there is hope by ordering the people to do certain things to help bring to town back to normal. Claude Etienne Savary, French scholar of Greek and Arabic, wrote a letter in 1788. In it he writes, the facts of how the Turks beat the Greek nation. He also writes how the Turks fight the culture of their science, arts, and human race. Lastly, Claude Etienne Savary says that he wants his people in Europe to all come together and make a stand against the Turks. (Docs 1, 2, 3) Percy Bysshe Shelley, and English poet, writes in his poem “Hellas” in 1821 about Greece.
He writes, “We are all Greeks. Our laws, our literature, our religion, our arts have their roots in Greece. ” By saying this, what he means is that the way his people all act and live, come from their Greek origins. Their whole lifestyle is based of Greek tradition. He writes how Russia and the Turks are trying to “possess” them and make them change their ways, but he will not. Edward Blaquiere, English organizer and fundraiser for the London Greek committee, writes in “Greek Revolution” in 1824. He talks about how the fortress of Navarino was surrendered soon after the uprising began in 1821.
During the siege, news of the murder of the head of the Greek Orthodox Church by the sultan’s government spread throughout Greece. This makes the Greek troops furious and everybody else sad. Alexander Mavrocordato, president of the Greek revolutionary government writes in “Declaration to the Christian Powers”, on April 15, 1822. He quotes, “For the last thirteen months, God had aided the work of the righteous. Her cities sacked, her villages burnt, her population decimated, bear witness to Greece’s proud determination. Crushed by numbers, she will yet wash out her defeats in her blood.
What will be the feeling of Europe towards her? ” By writing this, he is saying that they have prayed to God and Greece is still destroyed. This makes all of Europe mad, angry, confused, frustrated, and sad at the same time. This makes all of Europe start to lose their faith in God. (Docs 7, 8, 10) Therefore, various people such as, Sneyd David, Mustapha III, Claude Etienne Savary, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Edward Blaquiere, and Alexander Mavrocordato, as well as many more, viewed the character and condition of Greeks in the Ottoman Empire during the Greek movement for independence in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
From writing poems about the Turks conquering Athens, to letters of robbers stealing from Greece, to letters of standing up to the Turks and coming together, to Poems of not giving up their culture, to losing fortress after fortress, and to lastly, Europe losing their faith in God, every person in Greece had their own opinions and views to the Turks. Each wanted Greek movement for independence in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.