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Gender and David A. Cotter Essay

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The study has proposed a link between little payment and the limited number of females on top positions in the workplaces. The findings focus on gender inequality in the workplace and preventing women from obtaining high position and a great deal of money. In spite of big changes over recent decades, workplace gender inequalities continue in every country around the world. The transformation of men’s and women’s work roles stands out among the many economic, social and political changes in the last half of the twentieth century. In 1950, 29% women worked outside the home, but in 2000 nearly three quarters of women worked outside.

And their salary also increased sufficient. For instance, in 1963 women earned 59 cents for every dollar earned by men. Today women earn 74 cents for every dollar earned by men (David A. Cotter. Joan M. Hermsen. Reeve Vanneman. 2004). Gender inequality in the workplace impacts women in a different ways. Women are paid lower pay for the same job with equal qualifications. They are often passed up for promotion, or do not get hired over men. Women are also faced to sexual harassment. My literature review answers the following questions which indicate the sex discrimination at works: 1.

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What are causes of gender inequality in the workplace? 2. Why is there difference of wages between males and females? 3. How can women can navigate sex segregation and what ways can solve gender inequality? First of all, I want to start with gender equality that is the purpose of the equality of the sexes. Gender equality is also related to human rights, especially women’s rights. So gender inequality in the workplace refers to the income disparity between the wages of men and women around the world. This term primarily describes discrimination against women.

This literature review documents the history and current status of women in the workplace and provides recommendations for improvements in the workplace. History shows that women have not always been defined as property and thought of as second class citizens. What are causes of gender inequality in the workplace? There are several causes of sex inequity at work. One of them is “glass ceilings”. Wall Street Journal reporters described this phrase like the invisible wall that obstacles women from the top jobs and receiving promotions. These barriers exist in spite of the achievements or qualifications of the women.

The inequality effects of the glass ceiling are more common within higher-powered or higher income occupations, with fewer women holding these types of occupations. The glass ceiling effect also indicates the limited chances of women for income raises and promotion or advancement to more prestigious positions or jobs (David J. Maume. 2003). The next one is being more abilities in males than females. According to statistics men has higher education, knowledge, power, speed than women. So that, during the hiring process when men are hired rather than women with equal skills and experiences.

It can be seen in employment benefits such as the number of vacation or training a male or female worker receives. And women are more emotional and not strict. In this case, women tend to make mistakes. It is proved in science. Thus, many supervisors are afraid of putting women on top positions. Moreover, they know that women have their family. If she has children she of course thinks about Gender Inequality 2 them. The family may bother their career. So bosses also believe the place of women is at home. They prefer choosing men to women. The family may bother their career.

I think that women need to take the first step to keep striving for higher positions and not take the discrimination being thrown at them by men. So men are the only approvable variant (David A. Cotter, Joan M. Hermsen, Seth Ovadia and Reeve Vanneman, 2001. 667). Why is there difference of wages between males and females? The earnings gap between women and men has been widely documented. Although there was a slight difference of the earnings during the past ten years, women workers do not approach earnings parity with men even when they work in the same occupations.

Men have, on average, earned more than women. There are a number of reasons have been offered for this. To illustrate, one factor that influences earnings is educational attainment. In recent years, female educational attainment has increased relative to that of males. According to reports that females graduate with the same scientific and technological degrees do not enter the higher-paying jobs. Moreover, in spite of increasing women who are getting diplomas are not as many as men. Women as a majority have less education and experience than men; therefore, they are paid less than men (David A.

Cotter. Joan M. Hermsen. Reeve Vanneman. 2004. 673) Women obtain jobs in lower quantity than they obtain degrees. Salary inequity and blocked promotions are discouraging, leading women to find other choices more appealing. I present Shannon and Kidd’s results which were researched that in 2000, approximately 22 percent of women had a high school diploma, 32 percent had a post-secondary diploma, 14 percent had a bachelor’s degree. These results indicate that women are catching up to males in the percentage that obtain higher levels of education.

Higher education leads to higher wages, the increased educational attainment of women and the attainment of males, contributes to a closing of the gender wage gap (Shannon, Michael and Michael Kidd, 2001, 447–467). Another factor that affects women’s earnings is that they tend to take time away from the labor force a period of time – as is common for women who choose to have families. Thus, women, on average, bring less experience to their jobs, which mean they tend to have lower incomes at any given age. Moreover, many women tend to begin the onset of pregnancy.

So children may prevent to their mothers from having or continuing a perfect career. The next reason is that women tend to work less overtime than men, because, as stated above, women are, first of all, housewives. So they have to put their family first. They should take care of their babies, husband and do housework. So that, they try to avoid working extra time. It means that their salary is given conformity with their job-time (Shannon, Michael and Michael Kidd. 2001. 447–467). Male nurses earned $45,000 while his female colleague earned $42,000. But there is also so big disparity in salary.

So, the typical male physician earned $134,000 while the typical female physician’s earnings were $86,000 (Ginther, Donna. 2004). Women still earn less than men. The average woman, age 25-54, who earned $28,100. That is only 73% of the $38,700 reported by 25-54 aged men. And women’s average hourly wage is $12. 44, men’s is $15. 72 (David A. Cotter, Joan M. Hermsen, Reeve Vanneman. 2004, April 4). We quite literally see more women working today, and working in a wider variety of occupations than in the past. But despite this progress, inequality remains – after all, even in 2000 men were Gender Inequality 3 till more likely to have access to paid employment, to be employed in better jobs, and to be better paid in those jobs (Reskin, Barbara E, and Catherine E. Ross. 1995. 127-151). How can women can navigate sex segregation and what ways can solve gender inequality? The initiative in navigating the workplace successfully, which is rooted in male domination, is gaining awareness of the issue. Recognizing that gender inequality and discrimination still exists in the workforce is crucial in working to simply this problem. It is equally important to possess confidence.

Be confident in your own abilities and knowledge even when they are challenged. If women do not strive for their professional goals in the unequal workforce, we won’t gain achievement progress. Many women find the support of other female colleagues and friends to be especially beneficial in doing so. It is not enough to be educated about this issue, but should study on current laws that protect against gender discrimination or any other form of discrimination. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 bans employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

The Equal Pay Act of 1963 protects men and women who perform equal work in the same establishment from wage discrimination based on sex. I will mention for navigating the workforce successfully is to obtain as much formal education and professional credentials as possible. This will make women more competitive in the job market and help you excel in the professional world. Education is power, and also something that can never be taken away from you (Rena Sepulveda. 2009, October 19). Now I will move on to discuss possible solutions or ways to alleviate gender inequality.

Rethinking the family and the gendered division of labor within the family is extremely important. Women should not necessarily have to be responsible for the brunt of the house work and most of the responsibility of taking care of the children. This type of work should not be considered “women’s work. ” Instead it should be considered housework and parenting, which can be completed by both men and women. Also, taking care of the children and the home should not be considered lesser work than work outside the home in the paid labor force (Biernat, M. , Crosby, F. , ; Williams, J. 2004. 4).

Work places should offer paid maternity and paternity leaves. There needs to be better understanding and respect for the intense demands of being a parent in today’s society. If more women enter the workforce in all fields, but especially historically male dominated field, inequality will eventually decrease. As more women enter college and graduate school, inequalities will also decrease. This will make women in our society achieve more of a powerful and influential role in the professional world. I challenge both women and men to create awareness of these important issues and strive to make gender inequality a thing of the past.

It is up to us to change this. We must take first step! (Rena Sepulveda. 2009, October 19). Conclusion I talked about gender inequality manifests itself in the workplace today. These manifestations are occupational sex discrimination, lack of promotions, difficulty to get high wages and sexual harassment. The concept of the family is socially constructed. The family is a social unit. Within this social unit there is a gender division of labor. Women and men have different roles in the Gender Inequality 4 family. Often women’s roles are thought over less. Women are considered traditionally the ones to stay at home and take care of the family.

The men traditionally work outside the home in the paid workforce. Women who work outside the home have been subjected to domestic and service sector labor. Being one of few women at your workplace causes everyone to consider you as representing your entire gender. All these effects produce extra struggles that women face everyday at work. I support the ideas that women and men should have equal opportunities and should be paid the same. Gender inequality is gender discrimination that is enforced either by law or social practice that results in differential pay, promotions, jobs, education, and other forms of representation of men and women.

In other words, if women are given more scholarship money for men than women, that is gender inequality. In other countries, if women have lower literacy rates that are also gender inequality (Sarah Beth Estes, Joe Michael. 2005, April). I challenge both women and men to create awareness of these important issues and strive to make gender inequality a thing of the past. It is up to us to change this. We must take initiative! Gender Inequality 5 References Biernat, M, Crosby, F, Williams, J. (2004). The maternal wall: Research and policy perspectives on discrimination against mothers. Journal of Social Issues, 4(4).

Careercenterpeers. typepad. com/… /gender-inequality-in-the-workplace-and-how-women-can-navigate-it. html David A. Cotter, Joan M. Hermsen, Seth Ovadia and Reeve Vanneman. (2001). “The Glass Ceiling Effect,” Social Forces 80: 655-81. David A. Cotter, Joan M. Hermsen, Reeve Vanneman. (2004, April 4). Gender inequality at work. Prepared for the Russell Sage Foundation and Population Reference Bureau. David J. Maume. (2003). “Is the Glass Ceiling a Unique Form of Inequality? A Random-effects Model of Managerial Attainment,” Paper presented at the Southern Sociological Society, New Orleans, LA.

En. wikipedia. org/… /Gender_inequality Ginther, Donna. (2004). “Gender Differences in Salary and Promotion in Political Science. ” Paper Presented at the APSA Workshop on Women’s Advancement in Political Science, Washington, DC. International Union UAW v. Johnson Control Inc, 499 U. S. 187. Rathje, K. (2002, spring). Male Versus Female Earnings – Is the Gender Wage Gap Converging? The issue of the Expert Witness. Rena Sepulvida. 4th year Political Science/Sociology double major. Posted at 03:41 PM Permalink TrackBack URL for this entry:http://www. typepad. om/services/trackback/6a00e54ef5e50288330120a6503018970c gender inequality in the workplace and how women can navigate it. Reskin, Barbara, F, Catherine E. Ross. (1995). Women and Men at Work. Thousand Oak: Pine Forge Press. 127-151. Sarah Beth Estes, Joe Michael. (2005, April). Work-Family Policies and Gender Inequality at Work. Shannon, Michael and Michael Kidd. (2001). “Projecting the Trend in Canadian Gender Wage Gap 2001-2031”, Canadian Public Policy. Vol. XXVII, No. 4, 447–467. www. bsos. umd. edu/socy/vanneman/papers/Cotter_etal. pdf www. drwrite. com/research/sample1. shtmla