Most of the people here in the Earth above questions or ask themselves how does an airplane fly. By reading this article, you can now understand how does an airplane fly. This article is then fitted with illustrations to help you more understand about the said topic. Also, here you can greatly understand the theory behind the said topic. | A ll the object here on the Earth above, needs a wing in order to lift itself and a power to push itself forward.
If an object is light in weight it is easy to fly, like a kite, it is made up of paper and thin strips of wood, so it is light in weight, a bird; their body is lightweight so they can fly easily without any hassle. If an object is heavy or huge, it needs a great lift and power in order to lift them. I’m pretty much sure that most of the people here, ask themselves, ask their colleagues, when they are at the airport and boarding an airplane, the airplane’s takeoff, cruise and landing.
Of all this circumstances , how does an airplane flies, and stay up in the air or sky, despite of its tremendous weight and gravity. I’m also pretty much sure that everyone of us have seen an airplane takeoff at the airport, the ascend or climb at the air see from below at the villages, and from down where, look up in the sky there is a couple of flashing lights up there not knowing it is an airplane. A irplanes fly by knowing the different requirements namely: 1st step, is the PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT.
Applying 2 scientific principles from different scientists. These principles were: Bernoulli’s principle and Newton’s Law of motion. Bernoulli’s principle states that “The relationship between the velocity and pressure exerted by a moving liquid or air”, next is Newton’s 3rd Law of motion states that “For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction”. Bernoulli’s Principle Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion 2nd step is the FORCES ACTING ON AN AIRPLANE, we need forces in order to fly, and these forces are namely thrust, drag, weight and lift.
Thrust is the forward motion cause by the powerplant, Drag is the backward motion or the hindering force due to the shape of the fuselage, the planes on the body of the aircraft, Weight is the force attracting object closer to the earth because of gravity and lastly the Lift is the force that pushes the airplane up by flowing the air through the wings and pushing the airplane upward. 3rd step is the PRIMARY CONTROL SURFACES; of course the airplane need controls not only the forces and the principles. Primary control surfaces consists of first the aileron.
Aileron is an airfoil located at the wings both left and right, it is used to raise and lower the wings. The pilot controls the roll of the plane by raising one aileron or the other with a control wheel. Turning the control wheel clockwise raises the right aileron and lowers the left aileron, which rolls the aircraft to the right. Second is the rudder. Rudder is an airfoil located at the empennage particularly at the vertical stabilizer; it is used to control the yaw of the plane. The pilot moves rudder left and right, with left and right pedals.
Pressing the right rudder pedal moves the rudder to the right. This yaws the aircraft to the right. Used together, the rudder and the ailerons are used to turn the plane. Last primary control is the elevator. Elevator is located at again the empennage particularly at the horizontal stabilizer; it is used to to control the pitch of the plane. A pilot uses a control wheel to raise and lower the elevators, by moving it forward to back ward. Lowering the elevators makes the plane nose go down and allows the plane to go down.
By raising the elevators the pilot can make the plane go up. th Prior to this primary control surfaces is the SECONDARY CONTROL SURFACES. Trim tabs are small surfaces connected to the trailing edge of a larger control surface on an aircraft, used to control the trim of the controls & to counteract aerodynamic forces and stabilize the aircraft in a particular desired attitude without the need for the pilot to constantly apply a control force. Flaps are hinged surfaces mounted on the trailing edges of the wings of a fixed-wing aircraft to reduce the speed at which an aircraft can be safely flown and to increase the angle of descent for landing.
Slats, are aerodynamic surfaces on the leading edge of the wings of fixed-wing aircraft which, when deployed, allow the wing to operate at a higher angle of attack. Spoilers, Spoilers are a device intended to reduce lift in an aircraft. Spoilers are plates on the top surface of a wing which can be extended upward into the airflow and spoil it. 5th step is the MAJOR COMPONENTS OF AN AIRPLANE, without these components the control surfaces, forces of flight and the principle can’t be possible. Let’s move on, different components comprise an airplane.
Fuselage, defined as the body or the whole structure that gives an airplane a body; moreover, it carries tremendous stresses of forces encountered by the airplane in air and in ground and carries the load of the cargo and passengers. In a low flying airplane or small airplanes, the fuselage contains both the pilot and its passengers, on the other side, bigger airplanes have a separate location of the cockpit that of the cabin. Empennage, as mention earlier, it is the collective term used to sum up the components at the wing, stabilizers and its controls.
Wing, as defined, it is the primary source of lift, wing operates in order to fly by the help of aerodynamic air or the principles of flight. Engine, it is where the power comes from or the power that is needed for the operation of an airplane, it can be of reciprocating type or gas turbine type depending on the flight requirements and limitations. Propeller, it is a removable piece of airfoil in shape that absorbs air and diffuses it in a high velocity required and sufficient for an airplane to move forward.
Powerplant, is the combination of the engine and the propeller which in short produces power and at the same time thrust or forward motion. Lastly the landing gears, it cushion and support the airplane during taxiing, takeoff and landings. 6th step is the AIRCRAFT STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS, even though this step is quite not famous, it is needed because without these components, airplane parts would not be in reality and it can’t be completed. Bulkhead, often includes walls which separate fuselage component from each other, gives the fuselage its shape.
Cockpit contains the pilot and the airplanes overall controls, in large aircraft, pilot and cabin are separated while in smaller ones, it is taken as a whole. Control cables, are high stress resistance cables connecting the control levers with the control surfaces. Control stick or wheel, a vertical lever which the pilot operates longitudinally and laterally. Cowling, removable cover placed over the engine or around an aircraft component it is sometimes refer to as the skin.
Firewall, a component fireproof which separates the engine from the rest of the A/C. Also it protects the rest of the airplane from fire in case of engine malfunction. Inspection door, a small door at the larger airplanes located on the floor covered with carpet or matting which is used to inspect the interior of an airplane. Spinner, in propeller type airplane, it covers the propeller’s hub and give an intense appeal. Stringer, installed between the fuselage frames to support the skin.
Wing Strut, supporting braces that bears compression loads, mostly found in high wing airplanes. Wing rib, chord wise member of the wing. Wing spar or the wing beam, the principal span wise member in the wing and wing tip, combine together to make a wing efficient and reliable. Longeron, is the hardest metal which supports the whole airplane fwd and aft; from wingtip to the wingtip which passes to the center, moreover, this supports the wing in larger airplane despite of its wing span and weight