The many complexities of network design are vast, wide and most often tailored to the customer and their uses. In the case of Kudler Fine Foods the network is the backbone of the company compromising the bulk of communications as well as the point of sale network. The design of these networks is a collaborative procedure aimed at ensuring that the services provided meet the needs of the customer. In the search of the ideal plan for network development I will discuss and explain principles of distributed and centralized computer systems.
Accomplishing this by describing different network topologies; the standards and protocols that are essential to networking. The responsibilities essential in providing telecommunication services to include security, privacy, reliability and performance. How we distinguish and understand the uses of voice over the internet protocol, Centrex and other forms of telecommunications. With our main goal is to develop a system to utilize in our company that will ensure a proper management of our resources. The timeline for this is to have an implemented plan in place within 30 days of commencement.
Our outline of six months to have the plan implemented is not outside the rational. Considering the internal and external resources implemented in the project. Distributed Vs. Centralized Comparing the principles of Distributed vs. Centralized computing systems and explaining some of the varying issues of each type. Both models have their own architectures and varying complexities with their own problems. I will be verifying the different types and how they interact. Distributed systems originally referred to a computer network that was physically and geographically located.
Now the term is used to describe a process that run on a several systems and are interacting with each other by a physical connection. There are many different types of distributed systems and there is no one definition. However, there are a few guiding principles or commonalities that do define the group. First off it is made of several different computing systems that have their own memory and processor (Attiya & Welch, 2004). Each system communicates within itself by message passing. The system itself is lenient with malfunctions in distinct computers in the system.
The structure of the system is unknown and may consist of varying information sources, and the system may change during the execution of distributed programing. However the major problems with distributed computing are consensus problems, and self-stabilization. The reliability is achieved by using synchronizers to run on asynchronous systems, logical clocks for providing an it happened before ordering system, and algorithms to synchronize clock management over time stamping. Conversely centralized computing is done at a central location. Most if not all of the peripherals will be handled by the host computer.
It generally has dumb terminals or text only terminals or thin clients only with input output devices attached to the network. This offers greater security to the information stored on the system since it is mostly generated at the hub of the system and not at the terminal itself. In addition to security it has reliability in that if a terminal breaks down you can simply change out the devices or go to a new terminal and log in. Centralized computing is the most unsympathetic architecture of all because if the host or central system breaks down the whole system fails.
This type of computing is not as contemporary as it once was, however, it is making a comeback due to the ability of cloud computing, and the total cost of ownership to a potential client is far less than other systems. Some systems utilize a hybrid system that runs remote desktop software that let the desktop run localized processes such as the web browsing, while other applications are run by the central computer such as accounting transactions, or payroll. Network Topologies The different types of network topologies play a role in network design.
The physical topologies are basically the shape or layout of the different devices and how they are connected to each other physically. This refers to the cabling, locations of devices links and components, it is basically physical the structure of the network as it infers (Groth & Toby, 2005). Logical topologies are more to how information travels thorough the network with no concern to the physical elements. They are determined by network protocols as opposed to the limitations of the physical environment. Network Protocol
Network protocols are the system utilized to format message sending and exchanging between systems. They utilized signaling authentication or error detection and correction capabilities. Protocols describe syntax and semantics and synchronization of the communication processes. Some basic requirements of protocol are formatting data in exchanges, address formatting, address mapping, routing of messages, error detection, acknowledgement of reception, loss of information, detection of information flow, sequencing control, flow control, and basic primary is getting data across the network (Pearlman, 1999).
Without the basic formatting of protocols our information network has the potential to crash if anyone of these protocols are not deterred before they happen or as they happen. Utilizing network protocols provide a seamless effort for data communication on the network and produce productivity. The inherent responsibilities of the telecommunication service as and industry are all encompassing. The protection of the provider is as important as protection of the consumer. The security of the network is vital to ensure trust in the product.
If the privacy of either entity is corrupted than the entire system as a whole has no value to either side. The reliability of the system utilized is also a major concern, if the system in use has problems with shortages of service then performance it at a loss. Business as a whole is unforgiving of any service industry that cannot perform as described and then some. If your security, privacy controls, reliability, or performance comes into question, the life span of your particular business model is coming to a conclusion soon. Centrex, PBX, and VOIP
The turnover of technology has handed the customer many types of networking and communications over time. The Centrex model had its birth in the sixties and was to replace the PBX switch of the time. Although it is essential a PBX service that provides all the switching at a central point instead of the customers point of business. It is usually managed by the telephone company itself and they own most if not all of the equipment. The services are provided to the end user as needed and usually sold in packages. While in steep contrast the Voice over internet protocol in use today has a sharp difference in utilization.
Voice over internet protocol refers to the technologies and techniques in delivering voice communication and multimedia sessions over the internet network structure. The use of this technology greatly reduces the provider’s role in the networking of the phone service. All of the corresponding hardware and software are located at the point of business and are usually owned by the customer. This type of information service is greatly enhanced due to its digital architecture and transmission speeds carried by whatever provider that has been secured for internet service.
The service can be tailored by the end user in a matter of moments and us usually only hampered by cost of services provided. Data can be streaming in both voice and digital picture (“Voice-Over-Internet Protocol “, 2013) In addition to local and long distance calls being one set price, international calling is substantially cheaper. Hardware Elements In the computer world we utilize networking to communicate between two or more points. This is called networking. The concept of linking these two or more points; with hardware to transmit the link between two points.
The fundamental building block of this communication is hardware utilized to link all those communications. Hardware refers to tangible useable things that we can touch and see, unlike the software that it utilizes it must be processed and handled. Wires and cables connect these element and transmissions are routed by switches and hubs. The Router is the device that sends and receives packets of information broadcast by two points and sends it on to a third or even more points of interest along the line, depending on who requested it; or by who it was sent out too.
These elements have their own processing ability but for the most part they do little to the information except cocoon it up in a protocol and send it on to the next relay point (“Computer Network”, 2013). Communications Protocol The communication protocol is a giant transfer point license so to speak. Each highway on the information super highway has its own license to transfer on each particular lane to and from the hardware that generates these licenses. Protocols can in this case only be locked and unlocked by those who issue that license.
If you want to travel outside your network you need to acquire a protocol that in this case leaves your network and travels outside the network. This is done for security reasons. If the protocol was not in place to guarantee the safe travel or that the information was who it said it was. It is a basic security measure that most restricted access movement states utilize. If you want to guarantee who, what, when, where, and why of information going out and coming in; the protocol is the only way to ensure that information.
Otherwise you would have to build your own superhighway that only you could get on with no onramps or off-ramps for anyone but you. Since this infeasible and not very cost effective the only way to do it is protocol. Protocol Models In this case there are many types of protocols that are utilized to transfer data. The OSI is the family of different types of protocols that most information utilizes to transfer the net. It specifically has seven layers of protocols, and at each level of in this stack a new protocol or license is issued by each step and is therefore cocooned in each level of license or safety.
Each layer is sent on up the stack of protocol going out from each entity and is therefore each protocol is removed from the stack as it goes down through as it arrives at the destination. Each time the information has to come to a new junction on its way through it is wrapped in a new protocol to send it on its way. These layers consist of a physical layer, data link, network, transport, session, presentation, and application layers of this ubiquitous stack of protocol layers. Network Architecture Network architecture is how the physical nature of the network lays out in a real plane.
Architecture is the plan to develop how a structure works, and supports the development for the infrastructure to live on. It defines the basic design of throughways and junctions, as well as where each unit will live. It divines the end points where the information is utilized and how it will traverse to and from each point. It transforms the entire physical realm of routers and switches with the irrational realm of protocols and information transfer into the fit and finish of the designated information transfer system. Latency, Response, and Jitter
This process takes time and money to develop into a useful and sustaining form of telecommunications. The analysis of this information is very important to examine and deduce patterns in communications. Traffic analysis can infer movement problems and try to develop how to create a better way to reduce bottlenecks in the communication traffic. Traffic analysis could be maintained by devoted software like various forms of social network analysis. Traffic analysis may also be performed as a context to national security. Military intelligence and counter intelligence often utilize this method to try to find and exploit the enemy.
The greater point of this analysis is to develop a standard or a new working model when communications breakdown happens. •Latency – It the time delay between messages that can happen when traffic is overloaded at any one point in the traffic mode. If your timing is off or there is a hitch in the traffic model. Your timing will be affected and you will arrive late to your destination. •Response time – Is considered the time the end user sees between the request for information and the actual data arriving at that point. The network may have a delay and in that case you may wait for your information.
The type of delay may designate how long a delay may be. If you see a fender bender and slow some to avoid other traffic you may be five minutes late. If you are in a ten car pileup because you sipped you coffee instead of slowing down you will never make it home. •Jitter – is an interference of the network that causes the information data between network devices to misalign the information. There are all types of jitter from monitor flicker or undesired performance in a processor. Data Rate Data rates are usually bits per second rate that can be clocked at a related speed at each point.
The data can be registered between any two points on the communications network. Each point has a pitch and a catch between the next switch on the network or even through the protocol stack. It is necessary to maintain the correct speed between each point. As information is passed from one point to the next it has a metered speed. As in baseball it has an origin point which a pitcher shoots it at 103 Mph to the catcher and he in turn throws it to first base. At that point it may only travel at 60 Mph to first base; the first baseman may then try to throw it on to second at 80 Mph and so on until it reaches the pitcher’s mound yet again.
The time it takes is the compiled data rate for the ball to travel the diamond and back to the mound. Ensuring the availability of network access by any means is a constant uphill battle. In this state of the economy everyone wants or needs more speed and throughput as our culture has embedded everything with internet access. The video conferencing to the refrigerator almost every aspect of life has a link. Ensuring that availability in this arena has many different paths to follow. Router, Switch, and Firewall Router accessing is very useful when many pathways existing in your home or business network.
The path and packet transfer between routers is determined by the network. If the network is busy in one path it may pick another to finish the transfer. They can connect two or more networks with no decay of data; and can support many different varieties of communication protocols. Most all routers enhance link reliability by looping and using redundant path networking. Routing has and internal network security in that it can secure specific network segments, developing who has authority to access certain network or node addressing . When utilizing a switch to upgrade your LAN performance is an answer to speed and throughput.
Switches offer high performance and are easy to install and maintain. Switches cost less to operate and administer than router technology and allows you to increase bandwidth easily. Functions and features of a switch are advanced bridging, active congestion control, real time traffic and fault tolerance. Utilizing network information service requires us to have some sort of protection involved. Cover your assets because no one else is going to. The network utilized by a company has to have certain developed agents needed to secure agents all electronic threats.
The required resources are a hardware preventative measures and software preventative measures to offer overall redundancy and to address specific threats. The hardware infrastructure can be broken into three levels, access, distribution, and core. These levels contain the necessary hardware to control access within the internal and external network. The router is the outermost security level or access level; it is used to forward IP packets to the network. The router can block unauthorized access between networks. The firewall is utilized to block any unnecessary ports and allow traffic on from known ports and instances.
Coupled with intrusion detection the firewall is use to prevent attacks and source the incoming attack. The network switch is in the distribution of the network hardware pattern; however it has a minimal role in the security environment. They are utilized to improve performance and administration of the network. The network software profile works hand in hand with each phase of the hardware. First and foremost the routers are I need protocols to develop a want and need for network traffic between the users on one side and the rest of the world on the other.
Protocols stop ingress and egress filtering as well as screening the internal network to stop directed traffic ping packets, and routing information protocol packets. In your firewall systems the software utilized are for logging and auditing of traffic. They introduce packet filtering policy blocks and application specific filters to restrict unnecessary traffic. On the switch level the system utilizes the encrypted traffic model to ensure that traffic stays safe in the intranet. Other programs utilized are logging synchronization to clock all devices and logging information requests.
Administrative control lists and access control lists utilized to control how and who sees the information stored on the network. Firewalls are utilized to mitigate certain types of network attack scenarios with packet filtering, circuit filtering, application filters, and state inspection. Packet filtering is utilized to filter packets based on protocols, source or destination ports or addresses, IP filters are static and allow throughput or blocking. The packets are secured to ensure that the payload of each message is constant with stated size in each header.
While circuit level filters inspect sessions rather than payload, the incoming or outgoing client makes requests directly to the firewall and it initiates the connection to the server, this ensures that circuit level interactions are filtered. This keeps packet integrity and prevents session hijacking or replaying. Application filters can examine a data stream for an application and provide processing, reviewing, screening or obstructing, forwarding, and even adjusting the data as it clears the firewall. Stateful inspection application filters are restricted to the pecifics of the payload packet and thus make filtering decisions based only on the payload size and type; this limits the scalability of stateful inspection by outside sources. Wireless Technology According to “National Institute for Standards and Technology” (2012), The risk environment for wireless networks and handheld devices are vulnerable to many of the same threats as conventional wired networks. Intruders who gain access to information systems via wireless communications can bypass firewall protection.
Once they have accessed systems, intruders can launch denial of service attacks, steal identities, violate the privacy of legitimate users, insert viruses or malicious code, and disable operations. Sensitive information that is transmitted between two wireless devices can be intercepted and disclosed if not protected by strong encryption. Handheld devices, which are easily stolen, can reveal sensitive information. (para. The risk environment). WAN, and LAN The area network that you are utilizing is encompassed by many different circles of networks just like and onion. The smallest core of the onion is where you are sitting now.
It has in itself an area network that encompasses it and so on. The local or LAN area network is where your office or home network sits. It may be only a small as a router and one computer which incorporate the network. An office LAN may consist of twenty or more computers, printers or other devices that require an internet connection. The WAN or wide area network is broad and may contain a boundary of a metropolitan area. It consists of many LAN’s inside it. It is the next level of the onion that consists many different connections in that area based on who is providing the internet source.
The source or Internet Provider may encompass a small percentage of a whole city. Your neighbor may utilize a different source of internet, the many layers of that onion source around him and grow out into another complete onion. However they are all connected. Many parallels in sources of the internet are all connected. This is how you can have cable internet at one house and the next house down has broadband and you can communicate effortlessly. Each end of the source connecting to each member of their own LAN is in effect part of a WAN system beyond it. Wireless networking works in much the same manner as the LAN or WAN structure.
However, it utilizes a network that is not connected by any wires. It is the method of utilizing radio broadcasting over telecommunications networks. Recommendations On further review of the Kudler Fine Foods system implementation, the following references have been updated for future use in the company wide networking structure. Our main goal is to make sure that the required network has the available internet link as well as intranet communications for the hard ware that is currently present. Currently the points of sale terminals are hosted by a central network and are linked to a central server and should stay that way.
The Computer desktops are networked to the server via wireless 802. 11n technology, the standard for wireless communications at this time. However the security issues involved with wireless technology are far beyond the ease of use. Recommendations that a hard wired switch be installed for network communications at all three stores are utilized for desktop computer use. The dedicated OC 1 SONET line between each store is more than adequate for the specific purpose of communications; it may be considered overkill for the amount of speed required for traffic that is currently being handled by Kudler Fine Foods.
However, the pure speed alone is not the only reason for the dedicated line to the network. The ability to create a centralized network between each store has greatly increased the security systems of the network; while reducing the ability of traffic between each store from being obfuscated or corrupted by outside sources. The recommendation is to keep the dedicated circuit switch sourcing and try to work out a smaller data plan like the 25 Mbps to the internet system utilized. The current ratio of units to Mbps is outside the limits of the current footprint; and is costing the company money.
Outside of those changes the data center is set for the foreseeable future. The occasion or need to develop the system further is based primarily on the ability of the company getting any bigger than it is now. At that time the need to develop a plan to centralize the server system at the corporate store will have to be developed. The current model with a few modifications has more than enough legroom to grow with the current company footprint. Remodeling the entire infrastructure of the network at this time is not consistent with progress or funding well utilized.
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