Article Reviews

Motivation and Employees Essay

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Review this passage and select all that apply (from the options provided below, A-D) It has been suggested that “financial rewards do not guarantee more productivity, but paying attention to employees’ motivational needs does” and that “managers need to pay less attention to financial incentives and more to the actual motivation needs of their employees” (Sunday Business Post 2012). This is further supported by the results of the 2011 Mercer’s What’s Working survey where “being treated with respect, a work-life balance, the type of work undertaken … were ranked ahead of overall compensation” (Sunday Business Post 2012). . Quotations are not necessary b. Citations are incorrectly formatted c. Source/s not peer-reviewed d. Relevance of Mercer’s survey not sufficiently established 2. Review this passage and select all that apply “Article 4: “Motivating Employees” http://guides. wsj. com/management/managing-your-people/how-to-motivate-employees Much like the other articles, this particular article “Motivating Employees” makes significant reference to McGregor’s theories, X and Y. As it points out, it’s how you manage a person that determines their work attitude.

Granted, some people are more likely to lean one way or the other, but a good manager is able to bring out the best of their employees. A good boss can make all the difference between work being a chore, and being something enjoyable. “Because people dislike work, most people must be coerced, controlled, directed and threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate effort toward the achievement of organizational objectives. ” – Excerpt. ” a. Quotations are not necessary b. Citations are incorrectly formatted c. Source/s not peer-reviewed d.

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Quote not directly relevant to discussion above. 3. Review this passage and select all that apply In one of the first refereed journal articles I have chosen to look at, they explain how a central tenet of economics is that individuals respond to incentives. Journal 1 (Subject – Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, Author – Benabou, Roland; Tirole, Jean, Publication title – The Review of Economic Studies). This journal goes on to discuss how, in contrast, for psychologists and sociologists rewards and punishments are often counterproductive because they undermine “intrinsic motivation”.

They have used a paragraph from an 1876 novel, “The Adventures of Tom Sawyer” by Mark Twain, to give an overall idea of what the article is about. The author’s plan has been to try to pleasantly remind adults of what they once were themselves, and of how they felt and thought and talked, and what bizarre enterprises they sometimes engaged in. Tom said to himself that it was not such a hollow world, after all. He had discovered a great law of human action, without knowing it-namely, that in order to make a man or a boy covet a thing, it is only necessary to make the thing difficult to attain.

If he had been a great and wise philosopher, like the writer of this book, he would now have comprehended that Work consists of whatever a body is obliged to do, and that Play consists of whatever a body is not obliged to do. a. Reference included in body b. Citations are incorrectly formatted c. Source/s not peer-reviewed d. Critical discussion is vague and does not use sources or quotations to get make points about motivation problems and intrinsic motivation directly. 4. Review this passage and select all that apply

Deci, Koester and Ryan suggest that employees will eventually want to choose what they want to do and have no interest in the work that does not reward them. This is also a problem for Google as its employees will only put effort in on what is going to reward them and not necessarily going to suit the company’s interests. Not every task an employee has to perform will merit rewards. This is a very good way of losing control of the operation not mention throwing away money down the drain. ” a. The paraphrasing of Deci, Koester and Ryan should include quotation marks b.

The argument doesn’t align reward and interest as motivators in linking the literature cited to the case study problem for Google. c. The citation is incomplete d. Grammar and style are complete and correct. 5. Review this passage and select all that apply Eisenberger and Armeli argue that rewarding a child just for performing simple tasks spoils them and makes them lazy; it is no different with employees. Eisenberger and Armeli implore that incentive rewards have to be given for tasks that go over and above the normal call of duty.

Targets and goals are not to be easily accessible, but not as hard as they are unachievable. That will de-motivate the employees and stop them from even trying. Just like a football team that that reaches the second half of the game and does not score, their motivation just goes further and further down. As opposed to the team that scores the first goal of a game. That first taste of blood gets the whole team motivated to try even harder. a. It is clear that Eisenberger and Armeli are talking about employees in the workplace b.

The analogy of a football team is powerful and based on empirical data from the literature c. Citation is incomplete d. We may be able to draw some inferences about motivation in the workplace from child rearing and sports but this is not using the literature to clearly make connections and support an argument. 6. Review this passage and select all that apply Most of Gen Y workers have only just entered into the workforce in the past decade or two, which confirms the lack of empirical studies done on Gen Y as mentioned in so many academic studies on generational motivation issues.

Twenge et al, 2006, used time-lag method to compare people at the same age but at a different period in time, whereas previous research did not distinguish differences in career stage to that of generational differences. This is further supported by Hansen & Leuty (2012) pointing out that earlier evidence shows when age is constant generational differences in values remain the same. They had also found that young adolescent workers placed more importance to getting an interesting and highly paid job with high status in comparison to older adult workers.

Adult workers are more concerned with independence in their job, security and family values. Hansen & Leuty found that Sverko (1999) supported this through data collected in 1983 and again in1994 to show the Gen X work value using age as the influencing factor. Sverko found that the 1994 group placed more importance on utilitarian values (pay & status) and individualistic values (lifestyle & autonomy). This implies there is a bend towards extrinsic work values within the one generation movement and will be similar for Gen Y. a.

Citation formatting is perfect b. Scholarly sources are used well c. Multiple sources are to provide provide contrasting arguments d. The final sentence is supported by all the sources cited in the paragraph. 7. Review this passage and select all that apply Another opinion can be found in (Breisch, 1999). This article is specifically about nursing management but the motivational methods indicated are used in many organisations. This management model suggests that the employer should, among other things, provide the material and equipment eeded to keep up with technology, educate staff about new material and updates, encourage questions and ask staff to share experiences , give timely honest feedback about performance, enumerate clear expectations, develop teamwork. This indicates that employees perform better when they have the equipment and resources necessary to make their job easier, more accurate and quicker. Workers can quickly become disgruntled when simple hardware or policies can complicate a job and make it more difficult or time consuming. a. The citations are perfect. b.

The sources selected are relevant to the problem of motivating employees at Google. c. The summary of the Breisch article is strongly tied to the Google case. d. This critical evaluation is too specific to the article being discussed. 8. Review this passage and identify the most significant flaw: While Mayo’s theory reflected a rudimentary overview of today’s working environment, it fails to address other key factors which can be attributed to the theory of employee motivation. Hertzberg’s theory of motivation used a pioneering approach in which little assumptions where made and many open questions asked.

Hertzberg delved deep in the psychology of employees to understand what the real motives are in the working environment. His theory of employee motivation works on the premise of employees striving to attain satisfaction from ‘maintenance factors’ within the work force. These factors include policy, salary, work conditions, status security. Once these desired factors are satisfied the effects wears off as satisfaction is only seen as temporary state of mind. Hertzberg theorised that there is a need to fulfil maintenance factors initially, but after these are fulfilled people are no longer satisfied or motivated.

The true motive of an employee after all the maintenance factors are provided is being enabled to peruse achievement and development, which is far more fulfilling than monetary reward, as Taylor theorised. a. It does not provide citations for the theorists it discusses b. It does not indicate anything from the recent literature. c. The theory is not applied to the assigned case study. d. The writing style and grammar 9. Review this passage and select the statement below that most applies Successful Management by Motivation – Balancing Intrinsic and Extrinsic Incentives (Posselt et al. 003) Balancing intrinsic and extrinsic motivators is challenging. It is argued that intrinsic motivators override the application of extrinsic motivators. It is believed that some workers may only work towards extrinsic motivators such as factors relating to their value to the employer rather than focusing on the prospect of exciting and interesting work. On the latter it is also argued that it is important to create the right balance of both intrinsic and extrinsic motivators. a. Referencing is correct b. It is critical analysis of the theory . It is critical analysis of the case d. It is critical analysis of the problem. 10. Review this passage and select the answer that best applies Schermerhorn (2011) then refers to the important role the Google Australia played during the Victorian bushfires. Schermerhorn (2011) states the images available on Google Maps throughout the event ‘significantly reduced the load on the website of the Victorian fire authority’. Although the author doesn’t directly relate this detail to Google Australia being a great place to work, Chalofsky (2003, p. 2) argues ‘the best employers aren’t great because of their perks and benefits, but because of their organizational cultures and policies that promote meaningful work’. Employees can feel more justified and fulfilled by their work if they believe that what they are doing is contributing to society in a positive way (Chalofsky, 2003, p. 52). Feelings of justification and fulfilment can help motivate employees which can in turn promote higher levels of performance and productivity. a. The author obviously searched the scholarly literature on motivation extensively b. The passage is poorly written. . The key issue of the case is not clearly apparent d. It shows a good combination of using news items with peer-reviewed sources 11. Review this passage and select the statement that most applies A belief that is raised is that employees respond best by financial bonuses based on performance. A journal published by (Beam H 1995), cites that the only way to reward employees is by financial gain. This is one form of how management extrinsically rewards employees. (Bern H 1995) describes that monetary incentives should be broken into three forms, base pay, incentive pay and merit pay.

The incentive pay is based on specific projects, while merit pay is a culmination of rewards over the year. In my opinion this goes a long way to deteriorate the environment in the work place. This can create an organisation that is based on incentives, and rewarding individuals, rather than assisting development and creativeness within a team environment. This article was one of many that view this form as the most effective way, but it has been highlighted that organisations are constantly reviewing the ways in which staff are motivated and rewarded. a. It contains critical analysis of scholarly source b.

It is reasonably well written c. It is correctly cited. d. It is thorough 12. Review this passage and answer below. Results from new studies have shown that intrinsic and extrinsic theories, or dualism theories, that divide human motives into two categories are invalid, based on findings that human motives are genetically multifaceted (Reiss, 2012). In addition, intrinsic and extrinsic factors do not appropriately account for the social relationships associated with human needs (Elizur, 1984). Reiss argues that when evaluating intrinsic-extrinsic dualism against scientific criteria, the theory is disproved.

Reiss posits that the notion of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation has been based on an early theory, dating back to ancient Greek philosophy, to explain why the body died, but not ideas, and psychologists should not have embraced the theory as there has not been direct evidence to support its validity. This example has one flaw, it is that a. It is too wordy. b. It could be tied more directly to Google c. It doesn’t critique the literature deeply enough d. It assumes that newer studies are more important than older studies