Laboratory Research Report 1: Procedures in the Physical Sciences Hebert Duran Strayer University SCI 110, Kung Craig P. 29 April 2013 Identify three (3) specific challenges to making direct measurements in the fields of astronomy, chemistry, physics, or earth science. Describe how scientists have utilized indirect forms of measure to overcome these challenges Since the ancient times people have always been attracted to the unknown. Humans have always been curious about everything they have come across; How big is our earth? , how deep is the sea? Are there any other lands past the horizon? and how big is our universe?. These types of questions have always led humans to forcefully exercise their minds into figuring them out. Till today some of these questions still roaming around waiting for answer to be assigned to them. Astronomy is a natural science that deals with the study of celestial objects such as: moons, planets, stars, nebulae, and galaxies. (konrad B. Krauskopf, 2012). Astronomy is one of the oldest sciences. Is known that astronomy has been exercised by different civilizations like the Babylonians, Mayans, Indians, Chinese, and the Greek.
Most of them kept track of the skies by following the movement of objects through out the years. One of the main issues they came across was finding out the precise distances of planets and stars form Earth. However, through out the years astronomers have been able to figure out ways to overcome these issues. One way to figure out the accurate distance of objects in our universe is by using the Luminosity and Brightness of the astronomical objects. Luminosity is the measurement of brightness or amount of energy emitted by any form of matter in our universe. Muldrew, 2012). This means that the distance is calculated by measuring the time it takes light of a star to reach us here in earth. In chemistry one of the biggest challenges that chemists have encounter has been calculating the amount of bacteria located in one place. Chemistry is a science that studies the composition and properties of matter in terms of quantity. In the case of bacteria it is important for the chemist to know the amount of bacteria found at a certain location. This will let him know the gravity of the problem he may encounter in the future.
Since bacteria are organism that cannot be counted by just looking at it, other instruments have been created to make this process a little bit easier. The microscope is an instrument that can be use to directly measure the amount of bacteria and have a closer look at these microorganisms. Another form of direct measurement that has had many challenges is the lager scale surveying and mapping problems. When objects are found beyond the reach of measuring instruments, it is almost impossible to use any type of direct measurements to obtain the distance.
In types of cases we must turn to use different types of measurements. Indirect measurements is the process where the measurement of some entity is not obtained by the direct reading of a measuring tool, or by counting of units superimposed alongside or on that entity. (konrad B. Krauskopf, 2012) Scientist has utilized indirect forms of measure to overcome these challenges for many years. Stellar parallax is an indirect measurement that helps us find the distance of stars in our galaxy that are not too far away. Parallax is the apparent displacement of an object because of a change in the observer’s point of view.
Stellar parallax uses measurements done every six months (Khrutskaya, 2010). Also scientists have used different types of mathematics such as geometry and trigonometry to figure out distances by measuring angles from the location of objects. Choose two (2) of the most historically influential tools or techniques in the physical sciences. Explain how these techniques or tools work and how they helped to advance our understanding of the physical sciences. The things that we know now about science are thanks to the tools invented to obtain better answers about the unknown.
Much of the knowledge that we have about our solar system and universe would not had been discover if it wasn’t for the invention of the a telescope. The telescope is an optical instrument designed to make distant objects appear nearer. It contains an arrangement of lenses or mirrors or both that gathers visible light, permitting direct observation or photographic recording of distant objects. (Lacki, B. C. 2011). With the use of telescopes we have been able to learn a lot more about the planets in our universe. It has helped us understand about some of the history of everything around us.
Also it has been able to track asteroids and comets or any randomly flying objet in outer space that might become threatening to our planet. Another tool that have had a big impact in the science world is the Microscope. A microscope is an optical instrument that uses a lens or combination of lenses to produce a magnified image of small or microscopic objects such as bacteria and cells. One of the most known and historic purposes that the microscope has been used for is during the discovery of penicillin. Dr. Fleming, a bacteriologist, observed that a plate culture of staphylococcus had bee contaminated by a blue green mold.
Then tracking and observing the bacteria through a microscope Dr. Fleming was able to observe that the colonies of bacteria next to the mold were being dissolved. Fleming then proceed to grow the mold in pure culture and produced a substance that killed a number of disease causing bacteria, which later was named penicillin. (Quinn, R. 2013). Choose one (1) hazard associated with research in the physical sciences. Discuss how protective gear or equipment might be used to mitigate the hazard, as well as its efficacy. In the world of physical science, hazards are everywhere.
Especially since science is a hands on learning type of environment, we must test everything we read and read about everything we test. In the world of chemistry you mainly learn by being in the lab and seeing everything happening in front of you. Some of the hazards that can happen in this environment are exposure to fire, explosion, chemicals burns, inhalation of fumes, or being exposed to bright lights that might hurt your eyes. Protective gear as a whole can be extremely efficient when coming to deal with these hazards.
The use of gloves to prevent chemical burns, protective mask to avoid inhalation of fumes, eye protective wear to avoid any chemicals splash in your eyes, wearing a lap coat while conducting lab test will protect the rest of your body from all the same hazards as well. Describe the ways in which advancements in the physical sciences might impact the safety of the global community. Assess any special considerations for regulating this research I my personal opinion, I think that the advancement in the studies of earth science can have the most impact on the safety of the global community.
Earth science teaches us about our planet as a whole, not about our country alone but the whole world. It teaches us about the past, present and the future and how can we avoid things that might be harmful to our planet. Taking care of the only planet that we have is the least that we can do for the future of our families. It might not affect us at this moment, however two or three generations from now will be the ones suffering the results of our irresponsibillities. With advancements in this area of science we can impact the safety of everyone in this planet and it’s future habitants.
References Khrutskaya, (2010). Khrutskaya E. V. , Izmailov, I. S. , ;amp; Khovrichev, M. u. (2010). Trigonometric parallaxes of 29 stars with large proper motions. Astronomy Letters, 36(8),583. doi:10. 1134/S1063773710080062 konrad B. Krauskopf, A. B. (2012). the physical universe (fifteenth edition ed. ). McGraw-hill. Lacki, B. C. (2011). Cherenkov telescopes as optical telescopes for bright sources: today’s specialized 30-m telescopes?. Monthly Notices Of The Royal Astronomical Society, 416(4), 3075-3082. doi:10. 1111. 1365-2966. 2011. 19255. x Muldrew, (2012). Muldrew, S.
I. , Croton, D. J. , Skibba, R. A. , Pearce, F. R. , Ann, H. , Baldry, I. K. , & … Yang, X. (2012). Measures of galaxy environment what is ‘environment’?. Monthly Notices Of The Royal Astronomical society, 419(3), 2670-2682. doi:10. 1111/j. 1365-2966. 2011. 19922. x Quinn, R. (2013). Rethinking Antibiotic Research and Development. American Journal Of Public Health, 103(3), 426-434. doi:10. 2105/AJPH. 2012. 300693 Trigonometric Parallax. (2013). (Swinburne University) Retrieved april 29, 2013, from cosmos: astronomy. swin. edu. au/cosmos/T/Trigonometric+Parallax