A Question Paper in Marketing and Management_A Reaction Paper
(a) What are the steps in the questionnaire design process? (between 100-150 words)
The questionnaire is designed based on the kind of research to be conducted whether qualitative or quantitative or a combination. The questions are based need to answer specifically the statements of the problems identified by the researcher whether coming from primary or secondary data. Hence, it is designed and structured according to the sequence of the problems, how the problems will be addressed based on the variable identified; the degree by which the answers are to be gathered and measured in terms of scaling, percentage, based on the sample identified. The answers to the questionnaire should satisfy the appropriate and accurate responses to the problem questions whether is the What, Why, Who, When, Where and How.
The questionnaire is finally validated or pilot tested to determine and assure that the responses are directed towards addressing the research problems identified. Revisions and modifications can be made on the questionnaire accordingly based on the validity and accuracy of data gathered during pilot testing.
(b) What are the effects of non-responses on a questionnaire?
The effects of non-responses to a questionnaire can be substantial bias which can lead to wrong analysis, conclusion and recommendation. Hence, errors can enter into the generalization in case of quantitative research and inappropriate description in cases of qualitative studies. Although this can be corrected by snowball sampling (replacement), a callback or follow up of respondents can be made to complete the responses so that logical and valid analysis, conclusion and recommendation can be arrived at.
2) a. What are the general differences between qualitative and quantitative research methods?
The general differences between qualitative and quantitative research lies in the following:
(1) The objective of a quantitative research is to generalize while the qualitative type is meant to describe; (2) Qualitative research defines the meaning, character or analogy of something, while in quantitative research these are assumed and simply refers the measure of the subject; (3) Approaches to qualitative research can be through case studies, experience survey, focus group or secondary data analysis and can be conducted with relatively few samples or respondents; while quantitative researches generally follow sampling for purposes of generalization without which, conclusions can be invalid or fallacious;
2.b) What are their strengths and weaknesses? (between 100-150 words please)
The strengths of quantitative researches include its usefulness for business studies, surveys and researches that are based on numbers, quantity and statistical inferences relevant to decision-making or choosing among options and alternatives. However, the weakness of quantitative researches includes a need for accuracy in numerical or statistical information to avoid invalid or fallacious conclusions. While the strength of qualitative researches is based on real understanding of the phenomena to arrive at a principle, theory or intelligent conclusion and belief that can be repeatedly proven or give new meanings as well. The weakness of qualitative researches are the rigorous approaches to data gathering which should be adequate enough to arrive at a grounded theory or principle that can be replicated.
3) Below are some of the principles which underpin ‘The Market Research Society Code of Conduct.’ Describe briefly what is meant by each one (2-3 sentences at most for each one), and outline the relevance of each to the research process. Provide a clear definition of each principle and demonstrate understanding of why this principle is important to the research process.
(a) Informed consent. This is the process of getting data and information from the respondents with explicit permission to use the data and information for research and publication purposes. This is important to the research process considering the need to use accurate and reliable data as well as ethically use these data for the intended purposes. Thus, these data should be open to verification and confirmation.
(b) Anonymity. This is an approach to data gathering, processing and analysis that requires the researcher to maintain a requested anonymity or confidentiality of the identity of the respondent for security and integrity purposes. Respondents would often remain anonymous to the reader but known to the researcher. There is an ethical character here that requires the researcher to maintain secrecy in the identity of respondent. This is important to research because of highly sensitive information that is of high value to the objectives of the study.
(c) Confidentiality. This refers to keeping of data gathered from respondents, offices or entities purely for research purposes and must not be used for other purposes other than those permitted by the owner of the data and information. This is important to research considering the sensitivity and security value of the data gathered to the owner which should be safeguarded as part of the ethical process in researches.
MRS, (1999) Code of Conduct. Retrieved April 16, 200; Market Research Society, website: http://www.marketresearch.org.uk/standards/downloads/code.pdf