Article Reviews

View of Bipolar Disorder Essay

Posted on

Running head :A LOOK AT BIPOLAR DISORDER A look at Bipolar disorder and its many facets Mia Wolfe Liberty University Abstract Bipolar disorder has been around for hundreds of years and it has been called many names. Until recently there was not much help for people suffering with bipolar disorder. Biopolar disorder is like riding an emotional rollercoaster for its host. There is a genetic link and a brain malfunction that causes bipolar disorder. Today there are medications and treatment therapies that reduce the symptoms. Bipolar disorder tends to be the same across the borders and does not discriminate with gender.

There is no known prevention, however stress plays a factor. In the future we can hope to find a real cure for bipolar disorder. Introduction Bipolar disorder is a mental illness that affects a huge amount of the population. As many as 10 million people are affected in the U. S. alone. There are two phases to the illness, a manic phase and a depressive phase. During the manic phase the individual will experience an unusual elevated mood, energetic feeling, fast speech, and racing thoughts. During a depressive phase the same person may experience extreme sadness, disinterest in activities, and weight loss or gain.

The symptoms of mania and depression affect the same areas of functioning; emotional, motivational, behavioral, cognitive, and physical, but they affect them in opposite ways. The DSM-IV-TR distinguishes between two types of this disorder; bipolar I disorder and bipolar II disorder. In bipolar I disorder both manic and depressive episodes occur and alternate for months or days. Bipolar II disorder has milder manic episodes that alternate with major depressive episodes over the course of time. In both cases the moods swing back and forth and are usually have more depressive episodes than manic ones.

The DSM-IV checklist for bipolar disorder defines a manic episode as a period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood, lasting at least one week. The manic episode must include at least three of the following characteristics: inflated self-esteem or grandiosity, decreased need for sleep, more talkativeness than usual, or pressure to keep talking, flight of ideas or the experience that thoughts are racing, distractibility, increase in activity or psychomotor agitation, excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have a high potential for painful consequences.

Manic episodes also involve significant distress or impairment. The DSM-IV classifies bipolar I disorder as having the presence of a manic, hypomanic or mildly manic , or a major depressive episode. If they are currently in a hypomanic or major depressive episode there must be a history of a manic episode to be diagnosed as bipolar I. Bipolar I also involves significant distress or impairment. The DSM-IV classifies bipolar II as having the presence of a hypomanic, or major depressive episode. If they are currently in a major depressive episode there must be a history of a hypomanic episode and vice versa.

There must not have been a previous manic episode. It also includes significant distress or impairment. A person experiencing bipolar symptoms feels like they are on an emotional rollercoaster; experiencing many highs and lows. During a manic episode an individual has ” active, powerful emotions in search of an outlet” (Comer,2008). They can exhibit extreme joy or be extremely irritable and angry that is unporportional to their reality. They are seeking friends and excitement. They want constant companionship and may be over bearing. They may talk rapidly and loudly. They may indulge in erratic behavior and exhibit poor judgement.

They may hold a grandiose idea about themself. They feel very energetic, get little sleep, but still feel wide awake. Bipolar disorder affects between 1 and 2. 6 percent of all adults. It is equally common among men and women and appears across all socioeconomic levels. History Bipolar disorder is perhaps one of the oldest known illnesses. Research reveals some mention of the symptoms in early medical records. It was first noticed as far back as the second century. Aretaeus of Cappadocia (a city in ancient Turkey) first recognized some symptoms of mania and depression, and felt they could be linked to each other.

His findings went unnoticed and unsubstantiated until 1650, when a scientist named Richard Burton wrote a book, The Anatomy of Melancholia, which focused specifically on depression. His findings are still used today by many in the mental health field, and he is credited with being the father of depression as a mental illness. Jules Falret coined term “folie circulaire” (circular insanity) in 1854. He noticed a link between depression and suicide and his work led to the current term bipolar disorder . Falret also found the disorder to run in families, recognizing very early that there was a genetic link.

In 1913, Emil Krapelin established the term manic-depressive, he studied the depression and manic state. This approach to bipolar disorder was fully accepted and became the prevailing theory of the early 1930’s. In 1952, an article appeared in The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorder, that studied the genetics behind the disorder and said that there is a good chance that more than one person in the family will be affected by the disorder. Throughout much of the 1960’s many with the bipolar were institutionalized with little hope or relief because of Congress’ refusal to recognize manic depression as legitimate illness.

Lithium bipolar treatment was first approved in the US by the FDA in 1970 and it’s effectiveness was remarkable. In 1980, the term bipolar disorder replaced manic-depressive disorder as a diagnostic term found in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association. During the 1980’s research finally was able to medicate and treat the disorder more effectively and even today more studies are underway to find the probable causes and the possible methods of prevention and treatment. Cause of Bipolar disorder It is hard to diagnose a specific cause of bipolar disorder.

Research shows that bipolar disorder affects up to 5 % of the population. Along with the bipolar symptoms , many patients often go undiagnosed or present other disorders. A high percentage of people diagnosed with bipolar disorder also suffer from anxiety disorders, personality disorders, and substrance abuse. Genetics play a big role in the cause of bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder tends to run in families. Researchers have identified a number of genes that may be linked to the disorder, suggesting that several different biochemical problems may occur in bipolar disorder.

If you have bipolar disorder and your spouse does not, there is only a one in seven chance that your child will develop it. The chance may be even greater if you have more of relatives with a history of bipolar disorder or depression. The research into the genetic factors has produced new findings in the biochemical problems found. There is evidence that the manic episodes occur when there is overactivity of norepinephrine; and the depressed phase may be due to underactivity of norepinephrine. It has also produced evidence that a low serotonin level may contribute.

Brain imaging studies have found that people with bipolar disorder have a smaller than usual basal ganglia and cerebellum. Researchers are not sure what effect this has if any on the disorder. Bipolar disorder may be caused by one or a combination of genetics, biochemicals, and brain structure. Treatment Until rather recently effective treatment for bipolar disorder was rather non existent. Lithium was the first effective treatment. The value of lithium medication in treating bipolar disorder was discovered by the Australian psychiatrist Dr John Cade in 1949. It was not until the 1980’s that the FDA regulated it’s use to the general public.

Although 60% of people on lithium see results; it is hard to produce the effective dose and dangerous at high levels. It is not known exactly why lithium helps bipolar symptoms, but it probably has to do with a change in synaptic activities. There are other drugs available to treat bipolar disorders, but are mostly limited to either Lithium or Valproate. New research is unlocking many drug possibilities for the future. Leeds researchers found that the mice induced in a manic state showed decreased activity of the NKA enzyme, as well as increased activity of a protein called ERK.

Drugs known to have an effect on these two elements were administered to the mice, including Rostafuroxin and SL327, and both reduced their mania-like behaviour. This study believed that they may be able to screen people with bipolar disorder and look for the same NKA enzyme. Thus they may be able to be treated with new drugs. Psycotherapy is rarely helpful in treating bipolar disorder. Although many clinicians are using family or group therapy in conjunction with lithium. Prevention There is not really any prevention of bipolar disorder.

There is a link to stress. In the future there may be genetic tests that help people to screen themselves for the particular genes. But as for now there is no prevention method that has produced any scientific results. Cross Cultural Bipolar disorder seems to exist across culture borders, although not to the extent it does here in the U. S. Reasons for this could be a stigma on mood disorders, low awareness, or genetics. The United States has the highest lifetime rate of bipolar disorder at 4. 4%, and India the lowest, with 0. 1%.

Cultural awareness plays a very big role in psychiatry. Some cultures have a huge reluctance to speak about psychiatric things. In the U. S. , people with bipolar symptoms may be more likely to be diagnosed and feel more free to talk about the condition. There is also lower awareness of mood disorders and psychiatric terms and conditions in lower-income nations. Lower awareness and understanding produces higher levels of stigma. That means fewer people may be willing to talk about or get treatment for symptoms, which can lead to lower perceived rates of bipolar disorder.

Studies across countries are hard to produce because of the definitions of bipolar disorder can vary widely. Despite the regional and cultural variations, there are many similarities across the countries studied, including comparable symptoms and the fact that many people with bipolar disorder also had another mental health problem, usually an anxiety disorder. Biblical Worldview While Psychologists often miss the true spiritual nature of psychiatric disorders ; Some biblical teachings miss the medical nature of psychiatric disorders.

It is from a biblical standpoint that we as Christian counselors believe that we can allow God to guide the process of treatment while also utilizing medical science. Bipolar disorder is a medical term for a medical condition that happens in the brain. When a person is in a weakened mental state whether it is depression or mania the devil can easily manipulate the weakened mind. As a Christian psychologist or counselor how can we understand anything separate from God? We believe that God has all the power. Even in cases of brain malfunction, God can still produce results through his power.

Jesus came to set us free from sickness, heal us, free us from bondages. In Matt 28:18 Jesus says that “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. Jesus has the authority to heal any brain malfunction, he can also lead us to the medications or therapies necessary to live a full life. In Caring for people God’s Way there is a spiritually oriented approach to bipolar disorder treatment. It involves reducing risk factors such as; stressful life changes, alcohol or drug abuse, sleep distress, family distress, and inconsistency with medication.

As a Christian counselor we must also be aware of spiritual factors in the individuals life; Sin can always be a factor in depression and demonic attacks can affect a person’s thinking. It can be the goal of a Christian counselor to form a treatment program that involves medication and a healthy spiritual life. Conclusion Bipolar disorder can affect as many as 1 in 100 people in the U. S. It is a mood disorder that consists of manic highs and depressed lows. There is no known prevention and it is believed to be genetic in nature affecting the brain.

There is no known cure, Although advances in research are encouraging. The treatment for bipolar disorder is mostly medication combined with some form of therapy. Bipolar disorder affects people in all countries and all socioeconomic status. More research needs to be done in the future concerning new drugs, possible screening, and mineral deficiencies. A biblical approach combined with therapy and medicine should be studied and it’s effectiveness reported. References Bipolar disorder. (2007). Child & Adolescent Psychopharmacology News, 12(6), 6-7.

Retrieved from http://search. proquest. com/docview/211111670? accountid=12085 Bipolar disorders; uncovering the genetic causes of bipolar disorder could lead to new treatments. (2011). Psychology & Psychiatry Journal, , 256. Retrieved from http://search. proquest. com/docview/901788527? accountid=12085 Clinton,T. ,Hart,A. , & Ohlschlager. (2005). CARING FOR PEOPLE GOD’S WAY. Nashville , TN. Nelson. Helsel, P. B. (2009). God diagnosed with bipolar I. Pastoral Psychology, 58(2), 183-191. doi: http://dx. doi. org/10. 1007/s11089-008-0142-1 Tan, S. (2011).

Mindfulness and acceptance-based cognitive behavioral therapies: Empirical evidence and clinical applications from a christian perspective. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 30(3), 243-249. Retrieved from http://search. proquest. com/docview/911809241? accountid=12085 Torpy, J. M. , M. D. , & Lynm, C. (2009). Bipolar disorder. JAMA, 301(5), 564. Retrieved from http://search. proquest. com/docview/211438419? accountid=12085 Wellman, N. (2007). Bipolar disorder. Primary Health Care, 17(5), 31-34. Retrieved from http://search. proquest. com/docview/217843289? accountid=12085 Research Paper Grading Rubric Element |Points |Points Given & Comments from Instructor | | |Possible | | |Organizational Elements as outlined in instructions were followed, including APA|20 | | |style Level 1 sub-titles | | | |Title Page – APA style |10 | | |Abstract – APA style |10 | | | |10 | | |Introduction: Discuss the DSM classification for the disorder, including a | | | |discussion of the specific criteria as described in the DSM-IV. | | | |APA format required. | | | |(1/2 page). | | | |Historical Content (1 page) |20 | | |APA format required. | | |Cause of the Illness Research (1 page) |20 | | |APA format required. | | | |Treatment Approaches/Benefits (1 page) |20 | | |APA format required. | | | |Prevention of the Illness Research (1 page) |20 | | |APA format required. | | |Cross Cultural Issues (1 page) |20 | | |APA format required. | | | |Biblical World View (1 page) |20 | | |APA format required. | | | |Conclusion (1/2 page) |10 | | |APA format required. | | |References: |20 | | |At least 5 book or journal article sources (including one theological and /or | | | |Biblical in nature). Sources dated within the past 10 years (with the exception | | | |of the Bible). No websites. Direct quotes no more than ? page. Bible used as a | | | |source in addition to the 5 book or journal sources. References are in APA style| | | |formatting. | | | |Instructor Comments: |200 possible | |